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,dpa miog;G
'vdJ Cu; fhiuefu;"
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N`yp thy; nts;sp - Gfo;
my;ypd; Mgpufhk; mk;gythzu;
(fhiujPT 1865 - 1922)
midj;Jyfg; Gfo;ngw;w thdrh];jpupAk;> rhu; Irf; epa+l;ldpd; ed;kjpg;igg; ngw;
wtUkhd Njhk]; N`yp xU thy; nts;spapd; Njhw;wj;ij Mo;e;J fw;W> 1704 ,y;
fhzg;gl;l mt;thy; nts;sp kPz;Lk; 1758 ,y; kPz;Lk; fhl;rpaspf;Fnkdj;
jPu;f;fjuprdkhff; $wpdhu;. 1758 ,y; kPz;Lk; Njhd;wpa mt;thy; nts;spia fhZk;
Ngwpid N`yp ngwtpy;iy. Mdhy; mtu;fhyj;J thdrh];jpupfSf;F mk;khNkijapd;
fzpg;G rupahdnjd 1758 ,y; Njhd;wpa thy;nts;sp czu;j;jpw;W. mjdhy; mt;thy;
nts;spf;F mtUila ehkk; #l;lg;gl;lJ. 1834 ,Yk; 1910 ,Yk; ,t;thy;nts;sp
mtjhdpf;fg;gl;lJ. 1910 ,y; Njhd;wpa thy;nts;spia aho;g;ghzf;fy;Y}upapy;
MrpupauhftpUe;j my;ypd; Mgpufhk; mk;gythzu; rupahff; fzpj;J cyfpNyNa ngUk;
gugug;ig Vw;gLj;jpdhu;. ,jw;fhf ,t;thrpupa ngUe;jiff;F ,q;fpyhe;J Ntu;j;jit
Fellow of the Astronomical Society vd;w gl;lj;ij toq;fpf; nfsutpj;jJ. ,e;j
tpUijf; Fwpf;Fk; rhd;wpjo; ,d;Wk; aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}up E}y;epiyaj;jpy; fhzg;gLfpd;
wJ. 1921 ,y; ,t;tpUijg; ngw;w cyf tpQ;Qhdpfspd; gl;baYk; ,e;E}y; epiyaj;jpy;
Ngzpg;ghJfhf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,jpypUe;J midj;J ,yq;ifapYk; ,t;tpUijg; ngw;w
xNunahU mwpQu; my;ypd; Mgpufhk; mk;gythzu; vd;gJ czuf;$bajhfTs;sJ.

Rg;gpukzpak; mk;gythzu;(my;ypd; Mgpufhk; mk;gythzu;) 1865 ,y;
fhiujPT vd Kd;du; miof;fg;gl;l fhiuefupy; rf;fyhNthil vd;Dk; Fwpr;rpf;F
mUfhikapy; cs;s gapupf;$lypy;; fe;jg;gu; Rg;gpukzpaUf;Fk;> kidtp ghu;tjpf;Fk;
rpNu\;l Gjy;tuhfg; gpwe;jhu;. mtUf;F ,uz;L rNfhjuu;fSk; xU rNfhjupAk; ,Ue;jdu;.
mf;fhyj;J fhiujPT kf;fs; ngUk;ghYk; tptrhak;> kPd;gpb> my;yJ njd;,e;jpahTld;
tu;j;jfk; vd;Dk; Kaw;rpfspNy fUj;jhftpUe;jdu;. 1876 ,y; gutpa tp\Ngjp Rg;
gpukzpaiuAk; ghu;tjpiaAk; gypnfhz;lJ. mk;gythzu; mdhijahdhu;.

mtu;fspd; rpj;jg;guhfpa fe;jg;gu; rutzKj;J capUld; ,Ue;j %d;W gps;
isfisAk; tsu;g;gjw;F Kd;te;jhu;. ,f;fhyj;jpy; Kiwahd gs;spfs; fhiujPtpy;
,Uf;ftpy;iy. vdNt mk;gythzu;
jpUkjp Nrjp ehfKj;J vd;ghupd; jpz;izg;
gs;spapy; gapd;W te;jhu;. ,t;tk;ikahuplk; neLq;fzf;ifAk; vspa ,yf;fpaq;fs;
rpytw;iwAk; fw;wwpe;j mk;gythzu; jdJ fy;tpia
fhu;jpNfr Iaupd; fPo; njhlu;e;
jhu;. md;dhuplk; cau; fy;tp ,yf;fpaq;fisAk; ,yf;fzq;fisAk; Iae;jpupgwf; fw;
whu;. 1881 ,y; brk;gu; khjk; njy;ypg;gioapy; ,aq;fpa> ed;nfhil ngWk; Mrpupau; gapw;
rpf; fy;Y}upapy; mDkjp ngw;whu;. mq;F gapYq;fhiy fpwp];jt kjj;ij jOtpdhu;.
1883 ,y; Mrpupau; gapw;rpia Kbj;J ntspNawpdhu;. ,jd; gpd;du; fhiuefiur; Nru;e;
jtUk; aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upapd; gioa khztUkhfpa
jpU. jpirehafk; vd;Dk;
tof;fwpQu; mtiu aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upapy; Nru;j;J> fy;Y}up toq;fpa Ie;;J tUl gapw;
rpia Kbf;FkhW nra;jhu;.

,f;fhy fl;lj;jpNyjhd;(1884 - 1888) my;ypd; Mgpufhkpd; kjpEl;gKk;> Muha;r;rpj;
jpwDk; mwpQu;fshy; czug;gl;lJ. mjd;NghYk; ,t;tpNtfrPyu; fy;Y}upg; gapw;
rpnewpia Kjyhk; gpuptpy; fw;Wj; Nju;e;jhu;. aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upapy; gapw;rp ngWk;
fhyj;jpNyNa ,k;Nkij Xu; cjtp Mrpupauhf(
Instructer) epakpf;fg;gl;lhu;. ,J mf;fhy
fl;lj;jpy; ngUk; nfsutkhf fUjg;gl;lJ. aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upapd; Kjw;ju rhd;
wpjOld; ntspNawpa my;ypd; Mgpufhk; njy;ypg;gio Mrpupau; gapw;rpf; fy;Y}upapy;
tpupTiuahsuhf epakpf;fg;gl;lhu;. md;dhu; njy;ypg;giof;F tpupTiuahsuhf nrd;
wnghOJ mf;fy;Y}up khztu;fs; tpNrl tuNtw;Gf;fPjq;fis ,aw;wpg;ghbdu; vd;W
njupfpd;wJ. my;ypd; Mgpufhkpd; tUifiaf; Fwpj;J mtu;fs; cz;ikahfNt Mde;jg;
gl;ldu;. Mdhy; mtu;fspd; Mde;jk; mjpffhyk; ePbf;ftpy;iy. Vnddpy; 1891 ,y; my;
ypd; Mgpufhk; jkpo;g;Nguhrpupauhfg; gzpahw;Wk;gb aho;g;ghzf;fy;Y}upapduhy; miof;fg;
gl;lhu;.

aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upapy; gzpahw;wpa fhyj;jpy;
Senior Local vd;w guPl;iria 1886,
Yk; nrd;iw kl;wpf;FNy\d; guPl;iria 1889,Yk;  ntw;wpfukhfj; jhz;bdhu;. 1893,y;
fy;fj;jhg; gy;fiyf;fofj;jpd;
F.A guPl;irapy; Njwp gpd;du; B.A guPl;irapYk; rpj;jpngw;
whu;.
B.A guPl;irf;Fj; jhkhfNt gapd;W aho;g;ghzj;jpypUe;Nj Njhw;wpaJ ngUikf;
Fupa tplakhFk;.,f;fhyfl;lj;jpy; aho;g;ghzf;fy;Y}up fy;fj;jhg; gy;fiyf;fofj;Jld;
,izg;Gg;ngw;J mjd;
F.A guPl;irf;Fk; B.A guPl;irf;Fk; khztu;fisj; jahu; nra;J
nfhz;bUe;jJ. mg;NghOJ aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upapy; fzpjk;> thdrh];j;jpuk; vd;gtw;
wpidg; Nghjpj;j xNuahrpupau; my;ypd; MgpufhNkahFk;.

,tu; Rg;gu; rq;fug;gps;isapd;(rpd;dhzp) kfs; Kj;jhr;rpia tpthfk; nra;jhu;. ,j;jk;
gjpfSf;F fdfRe;juk;> mUisah vd;Dk; ,uz;L Gjy;tu;fSk; Mr;rpKj;J vDk; Gjy;
tpAk; gpwe;jdu;. ehw;ghd; Mz;Lfspy; my;ypd; jdJ kidtpia ,oe;jhu;. nghd;idah
ijay;Kj;J vd;gtiu jdJ ,uz;lhe;jhukhf kze;J nfhz;lhu;. ,uz;lhe;jhuj;jpy; xU
gps;isAk; gpwf;ftpy;iy.

aho;g;ghzf;fy;Y}up 1823,y; Muk;gpj;j ehl;njhlf;fk; thdrh];jpuj;ijf; fw;gpj;J te;
jnjd;gJ kWf;f Kbahj cz;ikahFk;. Mdhy; my;ypd; Mgpufhk; mtu;fNs thdrh];
jpu tsu;r;rpiaj; jkJ tho;tpd; ,yl;rpakhff; nfhz;Ltpsq;fpdhu;. aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}
upapd; rQ;rpifahd ‘kpiydp’> cjajhuif> ,q;fpyhe;jpd;
Royal Astronomical Society
vd;Dk; VLfs; thdrh];jpuj;ijf; Fwpj;J md;dhu; vOjpa cau;e;j fl;Liufisj; jhq;
fp te;jd. mtu; vOjpa fl;Liufs; rpy gpd;tUkhW.

Muk;gg; gs;spf;$lq;fspd; gapw;rpnewpapy; thdrh];jpuk; N`yp thy;nts;sp> c\;
ztiya thdkz;lyk;> thd kz;lyj;jpd; mjpraq;fs;

fhiujPtpypUe;Nj ,k;Nkij tpz;kPd;fis Muha;r;rp nra;jhu;. thdkz;lyj;ijAk; tpz;
kPd;fisAk; Ma;Tnra;tjpy; jd;nghOijf; nrytpl;lhu;. ,f;fhyj;jpy;
v];.kNf];
turu;kh vd;Dk; Xu; me;jz khztu; mtuplk; gapd;whu;. mtupd;
Jiznfhz;L gQ;rhq;fq;fisAk;> Nfhs; fzpg;Gf;fisAk; mwpe;
Jnfhz;L jdJ thdrh];jpuf; fzpg;Gf;fis ntspapl;lhu;.
1910k; Mz;
L Nk khjk; 19k; jpfjp fhiy 9.00kzpf;Fk; 10.00 kzpf;Fk; ,ilapy; G+kpf;F kpf
mUfhikapy; thy;nts;sp Njhd;wpaJ. mtuJ fl;LiuAk; fzpg;Gf;fSk; ,q;fpyhe;J
Royal Astronomical Societyf;F fpilj;jTld; mtu;fs; mtUf;F Fellow Of The Royal
Astronomical Society
vd;w tpUij toq;fpdhu;fs;. rhjhuz Mrpupad; xUtd; fdtpYk;
epidj;Jg; ghu;f;f Kbahj nfsutk; mJ.

thdrh\j;jpuj;Jld; ,ir> jkpo; ,yf;fpak;. tptrhak;> r%fNrit vd;gdtw;wpYk; ,k;
Nkij Mu;tKilatuhf ,Ue;jhu;. md;dhu; ,aw;wpa fpwP];jt fPjq;fspy; vl;L ,g;
nghOJk; njd;dpe;jpa jpUr;rig aho;g;ghz mj;jpal;rhjPdj;jpd; n[gg;Gj;jfj;jpw; Nru;f;
fg;gl;bUf;fpd;wJ. Mdhy; irtj; jpUKiwfisAk; gf;jpAlDk; gz;GlDk; ghLk; Mw;
wy; ngw;wpUe;jhu;. xUKiw Nru;. gp. ,uhkehjd; fhiujPTf;F miof;fg;gl;bUe;jhu;. $l;lj;
jpw;F mtu; tuf;fhyjhkjkhfptpl;lJ. kf;fs; fytug;gl;ldu;. mg;nghOJ mk;gythzu;
vOe;J rpy irtj; jpUKiwfisg; gf;jp rpuj;ijAld; ghbdhu;. kf;fs; thailj;Jg;
Ngha; epd;wdu;. Nru;.gp.,uhkehjd;> mk;gythzu; gz;zpirj;j Kiwia thdshtg; Gfo;e;
jhu;.

jkpNo mtupd; Kjw; fhjyhftpUe;jJ. fhiujPtpy; mtu; ‘gz;bju;” vd;W miof;fg;gl;
lhu;. jkpo; ,yf;fpa ,yf;fz mwptpy; mtu; epfuw;W tpoq;fpdhu;. Rz;zhfk; Fkhurhkpg;
Gytupd; mUe;jiyikapy; ,aq;fpte;j Mupa jpuhtpl gh\htpUj;jpr; rq;fj;jpy; Xu; Mu;
tkpf;f mq;fj;jtuhf tpsq;fpdhu;. vOit jPTf;F tUlh tUlk; aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}up
mjpgu;> Mrpupau;> khztu;fs; nry;tu;. me;j ahj;jpiufSf;F md;dhu; ,aw;wpa ghly;fs;
gpurpj;jp ngw;wd. ,Wjptiu tptrhaj;jpy; Mu;tKilatuhf ,Ue;jhu;. jkJ taYf;Fr;
nry;tJ mtUila ehshe;j flikfspy; xd;whftpUe;jJ. njhopyhspfSld; Nru;e;j
cOtjpYk; tpijg;gjpYk; mWtil nra;tjpYk; <Lgl;lhu;. fpuhkj;jpd; rhjhuz
njhopyhspfSld; ,ize;J tho;e;J mtu;fspd; Rf Jf;fq;fspy; gq;Fnfhz;lhu;.
kJtpyf;Fr; rq;fj;jpd; mq;fj;jtuhf tpsq;fp> fhiujPtpypUe;j midj;J fs;Sf;
filfisAk; %btpLk;gb nra;jhu;. nfhs;isAk;> mbjbAk; gykhftpUe;j fhyj;jpy;
md;dhupd; Nrit Nghw;wg;gl;lJ. fhiujPtpy; mNef Muk;g jkpo;g; gs;spf;$lq;fis
mnkupf;fd; kp\dupkhiuf;nfhz;L njhlf;fpdhu;. jho;j;jg;gl;l kf;fSf;nfd mtu;fisf;
nfhz;L epiwNtw;wpdhu;.

mf;fhyfl;lj;jpy; gpwehl;lhu; aho;g;ghzj;jpw; nrhw;nghopthw;wpdhy; my;ypd; nkhopngau;g;
gpdhNyNa mJ rk;g+uzkhFk;. Mq;fpyg; Ngr;rpYk; jkpo; Ngr;rpYk; mtu; epfuw;W tpsq;
fpdhu;. mtupd; rhjidfSf;F mtuplj;Nj fhzg;gl;l jpdrup xOf;fKk; fl;Lg;ghLNk
fhuzkhFk;. mtu; fhiyapNy 4.30 kzpf;F vOe;JtpLthu;. 6.30 kzpf;F fhiujPtpy; ,
Ue;J khl;Ltz;b %yk; Gwg;gLthu;. tl;Lf;Nfhl;ilia 8.00 kzpf;F mile;JtpLthu;.
khiy 3.30 kzpf;F kPz;Lk; tl;Lf;Nfhl;ilapy; ,Ue;J Gwg;gl;L 5.00 kzpf;F
fhiujPit milthu;. tay; Ntiy cl;gl jkJ Vida fUkq;fs; ahtw;iwAk; nra;
JKbg;ghu;. my;ypd; Fzhjprq;fis vs;sp eifahb fy;yb Ntyd; mq;fjj; nra;As;
xd;wpidg; ghbdhu;. my;ypdpd; nra;Aspy; mjw;Fj; jf;fgb gjpyb nfhLj;jhu;. fy;yb
Ntyd; thailj;J nksdpahdhu;.

aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upapNy my;ypd;> N`wd;bq;];> cwpr;nfhf;> gpwTz;> gpf;ndy; vd;Dk;
mjpgu;fs; gzpahw;wpdhu;fs;. N`wd;bq;];> cwpr;nfhf; MfpNahupd; fhyj;jpy; aho;g;
ghzf; fy;;Y}up fy;fj;jhg; gy;fiyf;fofj;Jld; ,izg;Gg; ngw;wpUe;jJ. my;ypd; mg;
nghOJ fzpj MrpupauhfNt gzpahw;wp te;jhu;. ,tw;Wld; mtu; aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upg;
gioa khztu; rq;fj;jpd; nrayhsuhfTk; fpwP];jt jpUr;rigapd; Kf;fpa
jiytuhfTk; tpsq;fpdhu;. gpwTz; fhyj;jpy; fy;Y}upapy; Kf;fpa khw;wq;fs; Vw;gl;ld.
fy;fj;jh ,izg;G Jz;bf;fg;glNt> Nfk;gpwpl;[; guPl;irf;fhd tFg;Gfs; epiyngw;wd. ,
f;fl;lj;jpy; my;ypd; thdrh];jpu Mty; NkYk; tsu;r;rpAs;sJ.

1914k; Mz;l gpwTz; mjpgu; gjtpfspy; ePq;fpdhu;. my;ypd; MgpufhKk; jpU. V.vr;.
gukrhkpAk; jkJ Mrpupau; gjtpfspdpd;Wk; ,uh[pdhkhr; nra;jhu;. Gj;jp[Ptpfspd; Gifr;
rYk; ngha; the;jpfspdhYk; my;ypd; mtu;fspd; ,uh[pdhkhTf;F fhuzk; vd;W $wg;gl;
lJ. vdpDk; gpf;dy; mjpguhdTld; my;ypd; jpUk;gTk; aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upapy; Nru;e;J
Ke;jpa Mu;tj;JlDk; Cf;fj;JlDk; gzpahw;wpdhu;. gpf;ndypd; ek;gpf;iff;Fupa
MrpupauhfTk; MNyhrfuhfTk; tpsq;fpdhu;.  ,f;fhyfl;lj;jpy; my;ypd; mj;jpal;
rhjPdnkd;Dk; jpUr;rig xd;wpaj;jpd; nrayhsu; ehafkhfTk;> aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}up
MSdu; rigapy; jpUr;rigapd; gpujpepjpahfTk; tpsq;fpdhu;. 1920y;
London Inter tFg;
gpid aho;g;ghzf;fy;Y}upapy; Muk;gpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lnkd;W gpf;ndYf;F ,bj;Jiuj;jhu;.
mtUila MNyhridf;F Vw;g gpf;ndy; Kjypy;
Inter Arts tFg;Gf;fis Muk;gpj;jhu;.
,e;j tFg;Gf;fs; 1964k; Mz;l tiuapYk; aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upapy; elj;jg;gl;ldntd;
gJ Fwpg;gplj;jf;fjhFk;.

my;ypd; mtu;fs; aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upapy; Nru;e;jnghOJ Kjy; tFg;gpy; mDkjpf;fg;
glhky; ,uz;lhk; tFg;gpNyNa mDkjpf;fg;gl;lhu;. Neu;Kfg; guPl;irapy; md;dhupd;
kjpEl;gj;ijf; fz;l Mrpupau;fSk; mjpgUk; mtUila Mq;fpy mwpT gw;whf;
fiwahftpUe;j nghOJk; ,uz;lhk; tFg;gpNyNa Nru;g;gnjd KbT nra;jdu;. Kjy;
tUlk; Kjyhk; jtizapNyNa mtu; tFg;gpy; Kjy; khztdhfj; jpfo;e;jhu;. aho;g;
ghzf; fy;Y}upg; gapw;rp KbAk;; tiu mtu; vy;yh tFg;gpYk; Kjy; khztdhfj jpfo;e;
jhu;. jkJ gapw;rpf;fhyj;jpy; vy;yhg; ghlq;fspYk; Kjy; guprpidg; ngw;Wte;jhu;.

gpf;ndy; fhyj;jpy; aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upapy; Mrpupauhf kPz;Lk; mku;e;j nghOJ njd;dpe;
jpa jpUr;rigapd; aho;g;ghzf; fTd;rpypd; nrayhsuhfp ,wf;Fk; tiu mg;gjtpapypUe;
jhu;.  1915 - 1922 aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}up ,af;Fdu; rigapd; epu;thff; FOtpd; cWg;
gpduhfTk;> njdp,e;jpa jpUr;rigapd; epu;thff; FOtpd; cWg;gpduhfTk; gzpahw;wpdhu;.
aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}up rQ;rpif> cjajhuif vd;gtw;wpd; gpuRuj;jpYk; MzpNtuhfj; jpfo;
e;jhu;. vdNt mtu; aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}upapd; Jiz mjpgu;Nghy; nrayhw;wp te;jhu;.
Mdhy; cj;jpNahfg+u;tkhf mg;gjtp mtUf;F toq;fg;gltpy;iy. Mdhy; my;ypd;
Mgpufhk; ,we;j gpd;du; 1923k; Mz;L ngg;utup khjk; eilngw;w ,af;Fdu; rigf;$l;j;
jpy;> my;ypdpf;F mLj;jgbahfr; rpNu];luhf epd;w N[.tp.nry;iyah Jizajpguhf
epakpf;fg;gl;lhnud;gJ md;W Ma;Tf;FupaJk; ru;r;irf;FupajhfTk; ,Ue;jJ.

my;ypd; Ntl;;bAk; Nfhl;Lk; ;mzpthu;. ,dpa Rghtk; cilatu;. vspikaha; mikag;ngw;
wtu;. jdJ nraw;ghLfs; jdf;F nfLjpfisf; nfhz;LtUk; vd mwpe;Jk; JzpthfTk;
Mzpj;jukhfTk; cz;iknadg;gl;lij ntsptpl;Lf; $wpdhu;. jdpg;gl;l tpNuhjq;fSf;
Fk; gifAzu;r;rpfSf;Fk; mg;ghw;gl;ltu;. mtUila gz;ig fPioj;Nja fyhr;rhuj;
jpdJk; Nkiyj;Njajpd ehfuPfj;jpdJk; nraw;if vdyhk;. mtUila kdk; njspe;j
ePNuhil Nghd;wJ. gpur;ridfisAk; rpf;fy;fisAk; mupjpy; czu;e;JtpLthu;. mtu;
mjprpwe;j fzpj epGduhfTk;> epfuw;w jkpowpQuhfTk; jpfo;e;jhu;. MrpupauhftpUg;
gjidNa jkJ tho;tpd; kNfhd;dj ,yl;rpakhff; nfhz;bUe;jhu;. aho;g;ghzf; fy;Y}
upNa mtupd; ,Wjp %r;rhftpUe;jJ.

Kg;gJ tUlq;fSf;F Nky; mauhj Mrpupa Nritf;Fk; gpd;du; 1922k; Mz;L [_d;
khjk; jkJ fhypy; Vw;gl;l Gz; xd;wpw;F itj;jpak; nra;Ak;Kfkhf itj;jparhiyf;
Fr; nrd;whu;. %d;W thuq;fs; itj;jparhiyapy; ,Ue;J tpl;L 7.7.1922k; Mz;L
kuzkhdhu;. md;dhupd; kuz Muhjid fhiujPtpy; mLj;jehs; rdpf;fpoik khiy 3.30
kzpf;F eilngw;wJ. mtUila cld; Mrpupauhd N[.tp.nry;iyah mtu;fSk; aho;g;
ghzf; fy;Y}up mjpgu; N[hd; gpf;ndYk; ,WjpAiu toq;fpdhu;fs;. aho;gghzf; fy;Y}
upapd; rpNu\;l khztu;fs; md;dhupd; cliy tPl;by; ,Ue;J Nrkf;fhiy tiu nfhz;L
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